Children's Encyclopedia Selection. Related subjects: Years
|Centuries:||18th century - 19th century - 20th century|
|Decades:||1830s 1840s 1850s - 1860s - 1870s 1880s 1890s|
|Years:||1862 1863 1864 - 1865 - 1866 1867 1868|
Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar).
Events of 1865
January - March
- January 1 - Hector Berlioz finishes his Memoirs.
- January 13 - American Civil War: The Second Battle of Fort Fisher begins when United States forces launch a major amphibious assault against the Confederate stronghold of Fort Fisher, North Carolina.
- January 15 - American Civil War: United States forces capture Fort Fisher.
- January 31 - American Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief.
- February 17 - American Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burns as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces.
- February 22 - Tennessee adopts a new constitution that abolishes slavery.
- March 3 - The U.S. Congress authorizes formation of the Freedmen's Bureau.
- March 4 - US President Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for second term. Andrew Johnson becomes Vice President.
- March 13 - American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agrees to the use of African American troops.
- March 18 - American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
- March 19 - American Civil War: The Battle of Bentonville begins. By the end of the battle on the 21st the Confederate forces had retreated from Four Oaks, North Carolina.
- March 25
- The "Claywater Meteorite" explodes just before reaching ground level in Vernon County, Wisconsin. Fragments having a combined mass of 1.5 kg were recovered.
- American Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Steadman from the Union. Lee's army suffers heavy casualties during the battle of Fort Stedman—about 2,900, including 1,000 captured in the Union counterattack. Confederate positions are weakened. After the battle, Lee's defeat was only a matter of time.
April - June
- April 1 - American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks - In Petersburg, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.
- April 2 - American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia which is taken the next day.
- April 6 - German Chemicals producer, Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik( BASF) founded in Mannheim.
- April 9 - American Civil War: General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, effectively ending the American Civil War.
- April 14
- April 15 - Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th President of the United States, upon the death of President Abraham Lincoln.
- April 18 - Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entire cabinet arrive in Charlotte with a contingent of 1,000 soldiers.
- April 21 - German Chemicals producer BASF moves its headquarters and factories from Mannheim to the Hemshof District of Ludwigshafen.
- April 26
- April 27
- May 1 - Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay is formally signed - War of the Triple Alliance has already begun.
- May 4 - American Civil War: Confederate General Richard Taylor, commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General E.R.S. Canby at Citronelle, Alabama, effectively ending the Civil War.
- May 5
- In North Bend, Ohio (a suburb of Cincinnati), the first train robbery in the United States takes place.
- Jefferson Davis meets with his Confederate Cabinet (14 officials) for the last time, in Washington, Georgia, and the Confederate Government is officially dissolved.
- May 10 - American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
- May 13 - American Civil War: Battle of Palmito Ranch - In far south Texas, more than a month after Confederate General Lee's surrender, the last land battle of the civil war ends with a Confederate victory.
- May 23 - Parade down Pennsylvania Ave in Washington, DC to celebrate the ending of the American Civil War.
- May 25 - Mobile magazine explosion: 300 are killed in Mobile, Alabama when an ordnance depot explodes.
- June 2 - American Civil War ends - Confederate forces west of the Mississippi under General Edmund Kirby Smith surrender at Galveston, Texas, becoming the last to do so.
- June 11 - Brazilian navy squadron defeats Paraguayan navy at the Battle of Riachuelo.
- June 19 - American Civil War: Union Major General Gordon Granger lands at Galveston, Texas and informs the people of Texas of the Emancipation Proclamation. This event is celebrated each year as Juneteenth.
- June 23 - American Civil War: At Fort Towson in Oklahoma Territory Confederate General Stand Watie, a Cherokee Indian, surrenders the last significant rebel army.
- June 25 - James Hudson Taylor founds the China Inland Mission at Brighton. England.
July - September
- July - The Christian Mission, later renamed the Salvation Army, is founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth.
- July 4 - Lewis Carroll publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
- July 5
- US Secret Service is founded.
- First speed limit is introduced in Britain - 2 mph in town and 4 mph in the country.
- July 7 - Following Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, the four condemned to death, during the trial, are hanged, including David Herold, George Atzerodt, Lewis Payne and Mary Surratt. Her son, John Surratt, escapes execution by fleeing to Canada and - ultimately - to Egypt.
- July 14 - The summit of the Matterhorn in the Alps is reached for the first time; four of the party of seven die in a fall during the descent.
- July 21 - In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots Dave Tutt dead in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.
- July 27 - Welsh settlers arrive in Argentina at Chubut Valley.
- July 30 - The steamer Brother Jonathan sinks off the California coast, killing 225.
- July 31 - First narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia.
- August 25 - Fall of the Shergotty meteorite Mars meteorite in Sherghati, Gaya, Bihar, India.
October - December
- October 11 - Paul Bogle led hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.
- November 10 - Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of a prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged, becoming the only American Civil War soldier to be executed for war crimes.
- November 26 - Battle of Papudo: The Spanish ship Covadonga is captured by the Chileans and the Peruvians, north of Valparaiso, Chile.
- December 10 - Léopold II becomes King of the Belgians.
- December 11 - U.S. Congress created the House Appropriations Committee and the Committee on Banking and Commerce, reducing the tasks of the Committee on Ways and Means.
- December 18 - Thirteenth Constitutional amendment declared ratified by three-fourths of the States of the United States. It forever abolished slavery.
- December 21 - Kappa Alpha Order founded at Washington College.
- December 24 - Several US Civil War Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan, to resist Reconstruction, and intimidate " carpetbaggers" and " scalawags" as well as to repress the freed slaves.
- Gregor Mendel formulates his theories of Mendelian inheritance- they are mainly ignored for years.
- A forest fire near Silverton, Oregon destroys about one million acres (4,000 km²) of timber.
- Last volume of Annals of Joseon Dynasty published.
- National Temperance Society and Publishing House is founded by James Black.
- Francis Galton, polymath inventor of the weather map and the silent dog whistle, introduces eugenics, after his half-cousin Charles Darwin.
|Ab urbe condita||2618|
|Bahá'í calendar||21 – 22|
— to —4502/4562-11-14
|Coptic calendar||1581 – 1582|
|Ethiopian calendar||1857 – 1858|
|Hebrew calendar||5625 – 5626|
|- Vikram Samvat||1920 – 1921|
|- Shaka Samvat||1787 – 1788|
|- Kali Yuga||4966 – 4967|
|Iranian calendar||1243 – 1244|
|Islamic calendar||1281 – 1282|
|Japanese calendar|| Genji 2 Keiō 1
|Thai solar calendar||2408|
January - June
- January 5 - Julio Garavito Armero, Colombian astronomer (d. 1920)
- January 10 - Mary Amelia Ingalls, Blind older sister of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. October 20, 1928)
- January 27 - Nikolai Pokrovsky, Russian politician and the last foreign minister of the Russian Empire. (d. 1930)
- February 28 - Alexander Henderson, American Businessman (d. 1925)
- January 28 - Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, President of Finland (d. 1952)
- February 12 - Kazimierz Tetmajer, Polish writer (d. 1940)
- February 19 - Sven Hedin, Swedish scientist and explorer (d. 1952)
- February 21 - John Haden Badley, author and educator (d. 1967)
- February 28 - Wilfred Grenfell, medical missionary to Newfoundland and Labrador (d. 1940).
- March 10 - Tan Sitong, Chinese reformist leader (d. 1898)
- March 15 - Edith Maude Eaton, English-born writer (d. 1914)
- March 19 - William Morton Wheeler, American entomologist (d. 1937)
- April 1 - Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1929)
- April 9
- April 28 - Vital Brazil, Brazilian physician and immunologist (d. 1950)
- May 2 - Clyde Fitch, American dramatist (d. 1909)
- May 25
- May 26 - Robert W. Chambers, American artist (d. 1933)
- June 2 - George Lohmann, English cricketer (d. 1901)
- June 3 - King George V of the United Kingdom (d. 1936)
- June 9 - Albéric Magnard, French composer (d. 1914)
- June 13 - William Butler Yeats, Irish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1939)
- June 26 - Bernard Berenson, American art historian (d. 1959)
- June 29 - Shigechiyo Izumi, Oldest supercentenarian male (disputed) (d. 1986)
July - December
- July 23 - Max Heindel, Danish-born Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic (d. 1919)
- July 26 - Philipp Scheidemann, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1939)
- July 29 - Alexander Glazunov, Russian composer (d. 1936)
- August 2
- August 24 - King Ferdinand of Romania (d. 1927)
- August 27
- September 11 - Rainis, Latvian poet and playwright (d. 1929)
- November 2 - Paul Olaf Bodding, Norwegian missionary to India and creator of Santali latin alphabet (d. 1938)
- October 1 - Paul Dukas, French composer (d. 1935)
- October 12 - Arthur Harden, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
- October 17 - James Rudolph Garfield, U.S. politician (d. 1950)
- October 26 - Benjamin Guggenheim, American businessman (d. 1912)
- October 27 - Tinsley Lindley, English footballer (d. 1940)
- November 2 - Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States (d. 1923)
- December 8 - Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer (d. 1957)
- December 19 - Minnie Fiske, stage actress, (d. 1932)
- December 20 - Elsie De Wolfe, American socialite and interior decorator (d. 1950)
- December 25 - Evangeline Booth, the 4th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1950)
- December 30 - Rudyard Kipling, British writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1936)
January - June
- January 19 - Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French philosopher and anarchist (b. 1809)
- February 6 - Isabella Beeton, British cook and expert on household management (b. 1836)
- March 1 - Anna Pavlovna of Russia, queen consort of the Netherlands (b. 1795)
- March 20 - Yamanami Keisuke, samurai (b. 1833)
- March 30 - Oleksandr Dukhnovych, priest, writer and social activist (b. 1803
- April 1
- April 2 - A.P. Hill, American Confederate general (b. 1825)
- April 13 - Achille Valenciennes, French zoologist (b. 1794)
- April 15 - Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (b. 1809)
- April 18 - Léon Jean Marie Dufour, French medical doctor and naturalist (b. 1780)
- April 24 - Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich of Russia (b. 1843)
- April 26 - John Wilkes Booth, American actor and assassin of Abraham Lincoln (b. 1838)
July - December
- July 6 - Sophie of Sweden, Grand Duchess of Baden (b. 1891)
- July 25 - James Barry, British military surgeon (b. 1795)
- August 12 - William Jackson Hooker, English botanist (b. 1785)
- September 2 - William Rowan Hamilton, Irish mathematician (b. 1805)
- October 16 - Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet, lawmaker, teacher, philosopher and sociologist (b. 1781)
- October 18 - Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1784)
- November 12 - Elizabeth Gaskell, British novelist and biographer (b. 1810)
- November 28 - William Machin Stairs, Canadian businessman and statesman (b. 1789)
- December 6 - Sebastián Iradier, Spanish composer (b. 1809)
- December 10 - Léopold I of Belgium (b. 1790)
- December 17 - Luigi Ciacchi, Italian cardinal (b. 1788)