Children's Encyclopedia Selection. Related subjects: Years
|Centuries:||19th century - 20th century - 21st century|
|Decades:||1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s|
|Years:||1988 1989 1990 - 1991 - 1992 1993 1994|
Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar.
The year 1991 is designated in the Chinese calendar the Year of the Sheep (from the start of the Chinese new year: Feb 15 1991, to Feb 03 1992). Any 1991 dates before February 15th are within the year of the horse.
Events of 1991
- January 1 - The Colorado Buffaloes claim college football's national championship with a 10-9 win over Notre Dame in the 1991 Orange Bowl. Controversy reigns as Colorado wins the AP poll, but Georgia Tech, the nation's only unbeaten team (with one tie), edges Colorado to win the UPI national championship by one point.
- January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's treatment of the Palestinians.
- January 11 - Soviet forces storm Vilnius to stop Lithuanian independence.
- January 12 - Gulf War: The Congress of the United States passes a resolution authorizing the use of military force to liberate Kuwait.
- January 13 - Soviet troops assault the Vilnius TV tower in Lithuania and kill 14 unarmed civilians; many more are injured.
- January 13 - A fight and stampede at a pre-season exhibition match between South African football teams Chiefs and Pirates in the town of Orkney near Johannesburg, South Africa leaves 42 dead.
- January 14 - Three PLO guerilla chiefs are assassinated in Tunis.
- January 15 - The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.
- January 16 - Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq.
- January 17 - Gulf War: Iraq fires eight Scud missiles into Israel.
- January 17 - Harald V of Norway becomes king on the death of his father, Olav V.
- January 18 - Eastern Air Lines shuts down after 62 years, citing financial problems.
- January 19 - Twenty-nine people are injured by a SCUD attack on Tel Aviv.
- January 19 - The Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola is founded in Luanda, Angola.
- January 22 - Three SCUDs and one Patriot missile hit Ramat Gan in Israel, injuring 96 people. Three elderly people die of heart attacks.
- January 25 - The dynasty of the San Francisco 49ers comes to an end as the New York Giants defeat the 49ers, 15-13, in the 1990 NFC Championship Game in San Francisco. The Giants win despite not scoring a touchdown, prevailing on five field goals by Matt Bahr.
- January 26 - Somalia President Siad Barre flees his compound in Mogadishu.
- January 27 - The New York Giants defeat the Buffalo Bills 20-19 in Super Bowl XXV at Tampa Stadium in Tampa, Florida.
- January 29 - Siad Barre is succeeded by Ali Mahdi Muhammad in Somalia.
- February 1 - A USAir Boeing 737-300, Flight 1493 collides with a Skywest Fairchild Metroliner, Flight 5569 at Los Angeles International Airport killing 34.
- February 7
- February 9 - Voters in Lithuania support independence.
- February 11 - UNPO, the Unrepresented Nations & Peoples Organization, forms in The Hague, Netherlands.
- February 13 - Gulf War: Two laser-guided " smart bombs" destroy an underground bunker in Baghdad, killing hundreds of Iraqis. United States military intelligence claimed it was a military facility but Iraqi officials identified it as a bomb shelter.
- February 15 - The Visegrad Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.
- February 18 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs in the early morning at both Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
- February 22 - Gulf War: Iraq accepts a Russian-proposed cease fire agreement. The U.S. rejects the agreement, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked if they left Kuwait within 24 hours.
- February 23
- The One Meridian Plaza fire kills three firefighters and destroys eight floors of the building.
- Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabian border and enter Kuwait, thus starting the ground phase of the war.
- February 23 - In Thailand, General Sunthorn Kongsompong deposes Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan in a bloodless coup d'état.
- February 25 - Gulf War: Part of an Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 29 and injuring 99 U.S. soldiers. It is the single, most devastating attack on U.S. forces during that war.
- February 26 - Gulf War: On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat.
- March- April - Iraqi forces suppress rebellions in the southern and northern parts of the country, creating a humanitarian disaster on the borders of Turkey and Iran.
- March 1
- The ballistic missile submarine USS-ex-Sam Houston SSBN-609 is deactivated.
- Clayton Keith Yeutter finishes as the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
- March 3
- March 9 - Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade; 2 people are killed and tanks are in the streets.
- March 10 - Gulf War: Operation Phase Echo - 540,000 American troops begin to leave the Persian Gulf.
- March 11 - A curfew is imposed on black townships in South Africa after fighting between rival political gangs kills 49.
- March 13 - The United States Department of Justice announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
- March 14 - After 16 years in prison for allegedly bombing a pub in an Irish Republican Army attack, the " Birmingham Six" are freed when a court determines that the police fabricated evidence.
- March 15
- Four Los Angeles, California police officers are indicted for the videotaped March 3 beating of motorist Rodney King during an arrest.
- Germany formally regains complete independence after the 4 post-World War II occupying powers (France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union) relinquish all remaining rights.
- March 30 - Northern Michigan University wins the NCAA Division I title in hockey, 8-7 in the third overtime against Boston University.
- March 31 - Albania has its first multi-party elections.
- March 31 - Georgia votes for independence from the Soviet Union in the Georgian independence referendum, 1991.
- April 3 - Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes the Cease Fire Agreement, Resolution 687. The resolution calls for the destruction or removal of all of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons, all stocks of agents and components, and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 km and production facilities; and for an end to its support for international terrorism. Iraq accepts the terms of the resolution on April 6.
- April 5 - Former Senator John Tower and 22 others are killed in an airplane crash in Brunswick, Georgia, United States.
- April 9 - The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares independence.
- April 10
- April 14 - In the Netherlands, thieves steal 20 paintings worth $500 million from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. Less than an hour later they are found in an abandoned car near the museum.
- April 17 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever, at 3,004.46.
- April 18 - Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687, and claims that it does not have a biological weapons program.
- April 26 - 70 tornadoes break out in the central United States, killing 17. The most notable tornado of the day strikes Andover, Kansas.
- April 29 - A tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, killing an estimated 138,000 people.
- May 15 - Édith Cresson becomes France's first female premier.
- May 21
- May 24 - Authorised by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Operation Solomon commences.
- May 26 - In Thailand, a Lauda Air Boeing 767 crashes near Bangkok, killing all 223 people on-board.
- May 28 - The Pittsburgh Penguins defeat the Minnesota North Stars 8-0 in Game 6 to win their first Stanley Cup in franchise history.
- May 29 - In Bari, Red Star Belgrade wins European Cup in football.
- June 3 - Mount Unzen erupts, killing 43 people as a result of pyroclastic flow.
- June 9 - A major collapse of ground at the Emaswati Colliery in Swaziland traps 26 miners 65 m below the surface. The men have access to a safe refuge chamber and are all rescued by a drill hole 30 hours after the rescue unit was first alerted.
- June 12 - Boris Yeltsin is elected President of Russia, the largest and most populous of the fifteen Soviet republics.
- June 12 - The Chicago Bulls win their 1st NBA championship by defeating the Los Angeles Lakers in the best-of-7 series 4 games to 1.
- June 13 - A spectator is killed by lightning at the U.S. Open.
- June 15
- June 17 - Apartheid: The South African Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act, which had required racial classification of all South Africans at birth.
- June 17 - U.S. President Zachary Taylor is exhumed to discover whether or not his death was caused by arsenic poisoning, instead of acute gastrointestinal illness; no trace of arsenic is found.
- June 23- June 28 - Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. inspection teams attempt to intercept Iraqi vehicles carrying nuclear related equipment. Iraqi soldiers fire warning shots in the air to prevent inspectors from approaching the vehicles.
- June 25 -Collapse of Yugoslavia: Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.
- June 30 - Portugal wins the FIFA U-20 World Cup defeating Brazil on the final by 4-2, after penalty shoot out, in Lisbon, Portugal.
- July 1 - The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.
- July 7 - The Brioni Agreement ends the 10-day war in Slovenia.
- July 10 - Boris Yeltsin begins his 5-year term as the first elected president of Russia.
- July 11 - Solar Eclipse of record totality occurs.
- July 24 - The government of India announces its New Industrial Policy, marking the start of India's economic reforms.
- August 6 - Tim Berners-Lee releases an article describing his idea for the "World Wide Web." on the alt.hypertext network.
- August 8 - The Warsaw radio mast, the tallest construction ever built, collapses.
- August 13 - The Super Nintendo Entertainment System is released in the United States.
- August 17 - Strathfield Massacre: In Sydney, Australia, taxi driver Wade Frankum shoots seven people and injures six others before turning the gun on himself.
- August 19 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is put under house arrest while vacationing in the Crimea during a coup. The attempted coup, led by Vice President Gennady Yanayev and seven hard-liners, collapses in less than 72 hours.
- August 20 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Estonia declares its independence from the Soviet Union, and more than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union's parliament building protesting the coup that deposed President Mikhail Gorbachev.
- August 21 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Latvia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
- August 24 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Ukraine declares independence from Soviet Union.
- August 25
- August 27 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Moldova declares independence from the Soviet Union.
- August 29 - Maronite general Michel Aoun leaves Lebanon via a French ship into exile.
- August 30 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Azerbaijan declares independence from Soviet Union.
- August 31 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declare independence from the Soviet Union.
- September 2 - The United States recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
- September 3 - In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.
- September 6
- September 8 - The Republic of Macedonia becomes independent.
- September 17 - North Korea, South Korea, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.
- September 19 - Ötzi the Iceman is found in the Alps.
- September 21 - Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
- September 21- September 30 - Iraq disarmament crisis: IAEA inspectors discover files on Iraq's hidden nuclear weapons program. Iraqi officials confiscate documents from UN weapons inspectors, refusing to allow them to leave the site without turning over other documents. A 4-day standoff ensues. Iraq permits the team to leave with the documents after the UN Security Council threatens enforcement actions.
- September 22 - The Huntington Library makes the Dead Sea Scrolls available to the public for the first time.
- September 30 - Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed from power.
- September 30 - A twister destroys parts of Itu, a city in southeastern Brazil, killing 16 and leaving 176 injured.
- October 2 - Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton announces he will seek the 1992 Democratic nomination for President of the United States.
- October 5 - The Croatian Parliament cuts all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.
- October 11
- In Russia, the KGB is replaced by the SVR.
- Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 715, which demands that Iraq "accept unconditionally the inspectors and all other personnel designated by the Special Commission". Iraq rejects the resolution, calling it "unlawful".
- October 12 - Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by its Supreme Soviet, is confirmed president in an uncontested poll.
- October 14 - Bulgarian right wing opposition celebrates the end of the rule of the Bulgarian Communist Party.
- October 15 - United States Senate votes 52-48 to confirm Judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States.
- October 20
- The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments.
- The Harare Declaration lays down the membership criteria for the Commonwealth of Nations.
- October 27
- October 29 - The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
- November 2 - Australia beats England 12-6 at Twickenham Stadium to lift the Rugby World Cup.
- November 5
- November 6 - The KGB officially stops operations.
- November 7
- Los Angeles Lakers point guard Magic Johnson announces that he has HIV, effectively ending his career in the NBA.
- The last oil well fire in Kuwait is extinguished.
- The first report on Carbon nanotubes is published by Sumio Iijima in the journal Nature.
- November 9 - JET fusion reactor generated 1.5 MW output power.
- November 14
- November 18
- November 27 - The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution opening the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
- December 1 - Collapse of the Soviet Union: Ukrainians vote overwhelmingly for independence from the Soviet Union in a referendum.
- December 4
- December 8
- December 12 - The Russian SFSR ceases to be a part of the Soviet Union.
- December 15 - The Egyptian ferry Salem Express sinks in the Red Sea, killing more than 450.
- December 19 - Paul Keating replaces Bob Hawke as the new prime minister of Australia.
- December 20 - A Missouri court passes the death sentence on Palestinian militant Zein Isa and his wife Maria for the honour killing of their daughter Palestina.
- December 22 - One month after Freddie Mercury's death, Queen's re-release of Bohemian Rhapsody returns to the top of the British singles charts, 16 years after the original version.
- December 25 - Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as president of the Soviet Union, from which most republics have already disbanded; the 73-year-old state is now expected to dissolve completely.
- December 26 - The Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the Soviet Union.
- December 31 - The Soviet Union officially ceases to exist.
|Ab urbe condita||2744|
|Bahá'í calendar||147 – 148|
— to —4628/4688-11-26
|Coptic calendar||1707 – 1708|
|Ethiopian calendar||1983 – 1984|
|Hebrew calendar||5751 – 5752|
|- Vikram Samvat||2046 – 2047|
|- Shaka Samvat||1913 – 1914|
|- Kali Yuga||5092 – 5093|
|Iranian calendar||1369 – 1370|
|Islamic calendar||1411 – 1412|
|Japanese calendar|| Heisei 3
|Thai solar calendar||2534|
|Unix time||662688000 – 694223999|
- January 5 - Vasko Popa, Yugoslavian poet (b. 1922)
- January 8 - Steve Clark, English guitarist ( Def Leppard) (b. 1960)
- January 11 - Carl David Anderson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1905)
- January 17 - King Olav V of Norway (b. 1903)
- January 29
- January 30
- February 2 - Pete Axthelm, sportswriter (b. 1943)
- February 5 - Dean Jagger, American actor (b. 1903)
- February 6
- February 7 - Amos Yarkoni, legendary Israeli soldier (b. 1920)
- February 14 - John McCone, American Central Intelligence Agency director (b. 1902)
- February 21
- February 24
- March 1 - Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid instant camera (b. 1909)
- March 2 - Serge Gainsbourg, French singer (b. 1928)
- March 3 - Arthur Murray, American dancer and dance instructor (b. 1895)
- March 12 - Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1900)
- March 14
- March 21 - Leo Fender, instrument maker (b. 1909)
- March 25 - Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, Roman Catholic bishop who fought for Catholic Tradition (b. 1905)
- March 29 - Lee Atwater, American Presidential advisor (b. 1951)
- April 1 - Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
- April 3 - Charles Goren, American bridge player, writer, and columnist (b. 1901)
- April 3 - Graham Greene, English writer (b. 1904)
- April 4
- April 5 - John Tower, former Republican Senator from Texas (b. 1929)
- April 8 - Per "Dead" Yngve Ohlin, vocalist for Mayhem/Morbid (suicide) (b. 1969)
- April 10 - Natalie Schafer, American actress (b. 1900)
- April 19 - Stanley Hawes, British-born Australian film producer, director and administrator (b. 1905)
- April 20 - Steve Marriott, English musician (house fire) (b. 1947)
- April 26 - Carmine Coppola, American composer and conductor (b. 1910)
- April 28
- May 3 - Mohammed Abdel Wahab, Egyptian singer and composer (b. 1907)
- May 8
- May 14 - Jiang Qing, Chinese radical revolutionary (b. 1914)
- May 15 - Andreas Floer, German mathematician (b. 1956)
- May 21 - Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (b. 1944)
- May 22 - Derrick Henry Lehmer, American mathematician (b. 1905)
- May 24 - Wilhelm Kempff, German pianist (b. 1895)
- May 27 - Leopold Nowak, Austrian musicologist (b. 1904)
- June 1 - David Ruffin, American singer, The Temptations
- June 3 - Maurice Krafft, (b. 1946) and Katia Krafft (b. 1942), volcanologists
- June 5 - Sylvia Field Porter, American economist and journalist (b. 1913)
- June 9 - Claudio Arrau, Chilean-born pianist (b. 1903)
- June 11 - Cromwell Everson, South African composer (b. 1925)
- June 14 - Peggy Ashcroft, British actress (b. 1907)
- June 15 - Arthur Lewis, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1915)
- June 19 - Jean Arthur, American actress (b. 1900)
- July 1 - Michael Landon, American actor (b. 1936)
- July 15 - Bert Convy, American game show host, actor, and singer (brain tumor) (b. 1933)
- July 16 - Robert Motherwell, American painter (b. 1915)
- July 18 - André Cools, Belgian politician (assassinated) (b. 1927)
- July 24 - Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-born Yiddish writer, Nobel Prize laureate
- July 31 - Baudouin I, King of the Belgians (b. 1930)
- August 1 - Chris Short, American baseball pitcher (b. 1937)
- August 3 - Ali Sabri, Prime Minister of Egypt
- August 4 - Evgeny Dragunov, Russian weapons designer (b. 1920)
- August 5 - Paul Brown, American football coach (b. 1908)
- August 8 - James Irwin, astronaut (b. 1930)
- August 11 - J. D. McDuffie, American race car driver (b. 1938)
- August 13 - James Roosevelt, American businessman and politician (b. 1907)
- August 14 - Richard A. Snelling, Governor of Vermont (b. 1927)
- August 30 - Jean Tinguely, Swiss painter and sculptor (b. 1925)
- August 30 - Cyril Knowles, English footballer and manager (b. 1944)
- September 2 - Alfonso García Robles, Mexican diplomat and politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1911)
- September 3 - Dottie West, famous country music singer (b. 1932)
- September 3 - Frank Capra, Italian-born film director (b. 1897)
- September 7 - Edwin McMillan, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1907)
- September 8 - Brad Davis, American actor (AIDS) (b. 1949)
- September 14- Russell Lynes, American art historian, photographer, author and managing editor of Harper's Magazine (b. 1910)
- September 17 - Zino Francescatti, French violinist (b. 1902)
- September 24 - Dr. Seuss, American children's author (b. 1904)
- September 28 - Miles Davis, American jazz trumpeter (b. 1926)
- October 6 - Igor Talkov, Russian singer, poet and composer, author of many anti-soviet songs (b. 1956)
- October 11 - Redd Foxx, American comedian and star of the television show Sanford and Son (b. 1922)
- October 17 - Tennessee Ernie Ford, American singer (b. 1919)
- October 22 - Leonora Knatchbull, daughter of Lord Romsey (b. 1986)
- October 24 - Gene Roddenberry, American television producer, creator of Star Trek (b. 1921)
- November 5 - Robert Maxwell, Slovakian-born media entrepreneur (b. 1923)
- November 18 - Gustáv Husák, Czechoslovakian president (b. 1913)
- November 24 - Eric Carr, American drummer ( Kiss) (b. 1950)
- November 24 - Freddie Mercury, Zanzibar-born singer (Queen) (b. 1946)
- December 1 - George Joseph Stigler, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
- December 6 - Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
- December 10 - Greta Kempton, American artist (b. 1901)
- December 15 - Vasily Zaitsev, Russian World War II hero (b. 1915)
- December 16 - Horatio Luro, Argentine-born racehorse trainer (b. 1901)
- December 18 - George Abecassis, English race car driver (b. 1913)
- December 31 - Tony An, 1991
- Physics - Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
- Chemistry - Richard R. Ernst
- Medicine - Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
- Literature - Nadine Gordimer
- Peace - Aung San Suu Kyi
- Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel - Ronald Coase